Community Engagement in Small Cities is a major contribution to the growing body of literature on the special character and value of small cities, especially aspects of their unique culture. Relevance. After all, there is no lack of Viking objects in Norway. Suppose they had required that objects be recorded and registered before leaving, and stipulated that if the national museum wished to keep an object, it would have to pay a market price for it, the acquisition fund being supported by a tax on the price of the exported objects. And it certainly can’t afford to fund thousands of archaeological digs. The symbolic Economy A large number of public spaces owe their form and shape to the entwining of cultural symbols. They also… Whose Culture Is It Anyway? Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Because they were removed from archaeological sites illegally, much of what we would most like to know about this culture—much that we could have found out had the sites been preserved by careful archaeology—may now never be known. They could reply that the Nok sculptures were found on the territory of Nigeria. But if they are of cultural value—as the Nok sculptures undoubtedly are—it strikes me that it would be better for them to think of themselves as trustees for humanity. Garrett-Petts, Ginny Ratsoy, Auto-Édition. The government of Peru has recently demanded that Yale University return five thousand artifacts that were taken from Machu Picchu in the early nineteen-hundreds—and all these developments are just from the past several months. Why shouldn’t Spaniards be able to experience Viking craftsmanship? Your culture is represented in your personal leadership example. In the short run, allowing Mali to stop the export of much of the art in its territory has the positive effect of making sure that there is some world-class art in Mali for Malians to experience. Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., "Whose Canon Is It, Anyway? Where objects have this special status as a valuable “contribution to the culture of the world,” the rule should be one that protects that object and makes it available to people who will benefit from experiencing it. But the right conclusion for them is not obviously that they should always stay in the country where they were buried. Article by Caroline Lewis. And in various ways, we’ve inched closer to that position in the years since the Hague convention. One connection—the one neglected in talk of cultural patrimony—is the connection not through identity but despite difference. So there’s no reason to think that the Nok have no descendants. If the laws are international laws, then they govern everyone. (Characteristically, perhaps, it took another decade for this decision to turn into an actual act of Congress.) ↩, The quotations from the Daily Telegraph, London Times, and New York Herald, as well as the information about Osei Bonsu, are all from Ivor Wilks, Asante in the Nineteenth Century: The Structure and Evolution of a Political Order (Cambridge University Press, 1975), pp. To poke about in a barbarian king’s palace, whose wealth has been reported very great, was enough to make it so. 2007, in Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. Your email address will not be published. The Nigerian government will therefore naturally try to preserve such objects for Nigerians. 189–196. Since the first film, Dr. No, which came out in 1962 to the present, the series has proved itself time and again. If it is good to share art in these ways with others, why should the sharing cease at national borders? Among the objects that the Italian government has persuaded the Getty to repatriate is a 2,300-year-old painted Greek vase and an Etruscan candelabrum. And the artists who made it came from all over Europe. It is a swanky restaurant in Scottsdale, Arizona, during the 2004 meeting of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL). Whose culture is it, anyway? A former curator of the Getty Museum is now on trial in Rome, charged with illegally removing objects from Italy, while Italian authorities are negotiating about the status of other objects from both the Getty and the Metropolitan Museum. This is clearly the wrong way to think about the matter. Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., "Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl," New York Times Book Review , 22 November 1987, 12. In these circumstances—and with this history—it has been natural to protest against the pillaging of “cultural patrimony.”1 Through a number of declarations from UNESCO and other international bodies, a doctrine has evolved concerning the ownership of many forms of cultural property. Greece is formally suing the Getty for the recovery of four objects. On the other hand, “cultural patrimony” refers to the products of a culture: the group from whose conventions the object derives its significance. Rocco Buttiglione of the Italian Culture Ministry has declared that the ministry’s aim was “to give back to the Italian people what belongs to our culture, to our tradition and what stands within the rights of the Italian people.” I confess I hear the sound of Greeks and Etruscans turning over in their dusty graves: patrimony, here, equals imperialism plus time. The logic of “cultural patrimony,” however, would call for the goblet to be shipped back to Norway (or, at any rate, to Scandinavia): that’s whose cultural patrimony it is. Unesco International Framework For The Protection Of The Cultural Heritage. Favorite Answer. The endangered artifacts would be shipped to a museum in Switzerland that had been set up specifically for the purpose of keeping these works out of harm’s way while the danger persisted. Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Catholicism, Sexual Deviance, and Victorian Gothic Culture (Cambridge Studies in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture 51). Summary: In this chapter, Appiah offers a cosmopolitan critique of the concept of cultural property/patrimony. My friends recall the dead look in a curator’s eyes as he described how the Taliban inspectors responded to these extraordinary artifacts by taking out mallets and pulverizing them in front of him. It should be acknowledged. They would like to wonder at—if we will not let them touch—that very thing. Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec -5% de réduction . It offers a concise summary of the legal scholar John Merryman's classic article in support of internationalism about cultural property (not included in this curriculum). In the simplest terms, it is that cultural property should be regarded as the property of its culture. In book: … To be sure, there are various cases where repatriation makes sense. Indeed, at a UNESCO meeting that winter, experts in Central Asian antiquities actually denounced Dr. Bucherer for trying to destroy Afghan culture.3. As Sir Garnet Wolseley prepared to loot and then blow up the Aban, the large stone building in the city’s center, European and American journalists were allowed to wander through it. A growing culture-keeping industry is happy to part adoptive parents from their money; one mom calls it “white women playing Chinese.” When cultural identity is essentialized and sold in this way, Jacobson suggests, it allows white parents to focus on “culture” rather than a child’s race. And there’s something odd, to my mind, about thinking of Hindu temple sculpture or Michelangelo’s and Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican as the contribution of a people, rather than the contribution of the artists who made (and, if you like, the patrons who paid for) them. Chapter 11. Museum workers were ordered to open drawers of antiquities by Taliban inspectors, in the wake of Mullah Omar’s February 2001 edict against pre-Islamic art. Photo by Hunters Race on Unsplash . I do not have those skills and my imagination spins different dreams. Once you see that, then there’s no reason why a Spanish museum couldn’t or shouldn’t preserve a Norse goblet, legally acquired, let’s imagine, at a Dublin auction, after the salvage of a Viking shipwreck off Ireland. ", Kwame Anthony Appiah argued that objects of cultural value "belong in the deepest sense to all of us" and "are of potential value to all human beings". 16, No. Whose Culture Is It Anyway: A Review and Critique Knowledge of Our Skin The color of our skin does not define who we are; however, it does allow us to acknowledge the diversity of our society. Whose Culture Is It Anyway? You get social prestige from lending your works of art to shows, where they can be labeled “from the collection of…” And, finally, you might earn a good sum by selling it at auction, while both allowing the curious a temporary look at it and providing for a new owner the pleasures you have already known. Because what it unites are nations, not human beings, it is impotent when what humanity needs is not what some state has decided to do. When the British general Sir Garnet Wolseley traveled to West Africa and destroyed the Asante capital, Kumasi, in a “punitive expedition” in 1874, he authorized the looting of the palace of King Kofi Karikari, which included an extraordinary treasury of art and artifacts. The British Daily Telegraph described it as “the museum, for museum it should be called, where the art treasures of the monarchy were stored.” The London Times’s Winwood Reade wrote that each of its rooms “was a perfect Old Curiosity Shop.” “Books in many languages,” he continued, “Bohemian glass, clocks, silver plate, old furniture, Persian rugs, Kidderminster carpets, pictures and engravings, numberless chests and coffers…. If an object is central to the cultural or religious life of a community, there is a human reason for it to find its place back with them. Related Posts: Whose Culture is it Anyway? Though it was slightly hard to understand, it really made me think about what American culture is exactly. There’s something else it could do. Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Dana Irina - 2011 - Journal for Communication and Culture 1 (2):30-48. The great international collectors and curators, once celebrated for their perceptiveness and perseverance, are now regularly deplored as traffickers in, or receivers of, stolen goods. WHOSE CANON IS IT, ANYWAY? Here was a man with an armful of gold-hilted swords, there one with a box full of gold trinkets and rings, another with a spirit-case full of bottles of brandy, yet in no instance was there any attempt at looting. Apparently, he had been deeply impressed by what he’d heard about the British Museum.6. " Whose Culture is it Anyways ? Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Whose City?’ in The Cultures of Cities. But while Paul Bucherer and his Afghan colleagues had managed to negotiate around the Taliban hard-liners, they hadn’t counted on the UNESCO hard-liners. I don't know. The Culture Debate in the U.S.: Whose Culture Is This, Anyway? Perhaps the matter of biological descent is a distraction: proponents of the patrimony argument would surely be undeterred if it turned out that the Nok sculptures were made by eunuchs. 831–853. Perhaps one of the most striking features about it was that the work of collecting the treasures was entrusted to a company of British soldiers, and that it was done most honestly and well, without a single case of looting. The result is that many fine Djenne-jeno terra cottas were dug up anyway in the 1980s, after the discoveries of the archaeologists Roderick and Susan McIntosh and their team were published. Article by Caroline Lewis. Related Posts: Whose Culture is it Anyway? We won’t, however, need the concept of cultural patrimony to understand them. Lv 6. Small and medium sized cities tend to be overlooked in urban studies literature and this book brings much need attention to the […] This text offers a clear and effective overview of philosophical issues concerning cultural property, and uses a range of cultural and artistic examples. By embedding programming in the community, we can avoid transposing mainstream culture onto that which is local. Jess Graham, M.S. ↩, James Cuno, “US Art Museums and Cultural Property,” Connecticut Journal of International Law, Vol. Chapter 12. Mythology Of The Antiquities Market. Many of the treasures in the Aban were no doubt war booty as well. Here the objects are understood to belong to a particular group, heirs to a transhistorical identity. Posted on: March 30th, 2016 by Michael Gates. We could make millions off of it easily, but we're just going to leave it the way it is. But mightn’t all this have been better than what actually happened? Community Engagement in Small Cities, Whose Culture Is It, Anyway?, James Hoffman, W.F. It was made not for nations or peoples but for princes or popes or ad majorem gloriam dei. Subscribe Today. Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Many Egyptians—overwhelmingly Muslims who regard the religion of the Pharaohs as idolatrous—nevertheless insist that all the antiquities ever exported from Egypt’s borders are really theirs. And UNESCO refused to authorize the shipments. While conservatives sometimes prevail in policy debates, they consistently lose in … The problem in Afghanistan under the Taliban wasn’t so much the behavior of UNESCO bureaucrats as the conception of their task imposed upon them by the community of nations. We don’t know whether the terra-cotta Nok sculptures, made sometime between about 800 BC and 200 AD, were commissioned by kings or commoners; we don’t know whether the people who made them and the people who paid for them thought of them as belonging to the kingdom, to a man, to a lineage, or to the gods. Various explanations were offered, but the objection came down to the 1970 UNESCO Agreement on the Illicit Traffic of Cultural Objects, and its strictures against involving moving objects from their country of origin. It’s the early Sixties. That notion of “origination” is interestingly elastic. Subscribe Today. Zukin, S (1995), ‘Whose Culture? More importantly, in a line often ascribed to Picasso, good artists copy, great ones steal; and they steal from everywhere. They had heard the rumblings about a new wave of iconoclasm, and they took them seriously. It is a swanky restaurant in Scottsdale, Arizona, during the 2004 meeting of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL). By ELIZABETH A. REYES September 17, 2004 Premium content for subscribers. Whose culture is it anyway? (When antiquities are involved, though, a number of other states will do so.) We will do well to recognize that iconoclasm is as much an expression of nationalism as idolatry: the human community needs to find ways to protect our common heritage from the iconoclasts, even when they are the masters of nations. Cultures, by contrast, can die without physical extinction. Best of The New York Review, plus books, events, and other items of interest, “There is no document of civilization,” Walter Benjamin maintained, in his most often-quoted line, “that is not at the same time a document of barbarism.” He was writing—some sixty-five years ago—with particular reference to the spoils of victory carried in a triumphal procession: “They are called cultural treasures,” he said, but they had origins he could not “contemplate without horror.”. The Academy For Falling Over | Whose Culture Is It Anyway Ep.1 View full playlist (2 videos) Show more. Even on a grander scale, a Jewish-inspired theme plays out in this gem business of a movie series, whose titles include “Goldfinger” and “Diamonds Are Forever.” And it was going to prove a goldmine. There is, however, a more important reason: I actually want museums in Europe to be able to show the riches of the society they plundered in the years when my grandfather was a young man. So why can’t the Nigerian government just take it, as the natural trustees of the Nigerian people, whose property it is? You live in Ibadan, in the heart of Yorubaland in Nigeria. The New York Times Archives. Because perhaps the greatest of the many ironies of the sacking of Kumasi in 1874 is that it deprived my hometown of a collection that was, in fact, splendidly cosmopolitan. Gates makes a great point in his essay. So the rule of “finders, keepers,” which may make sense for objects of less significance, will not do. © 1963-2020 NYREV, Inc. All rights reserved. In November, the Metropolitan Museum in New York seemed close to a deal with the Italians to return a two-and-a-half-millennium-old terra-cotta vase from Greece, known as the Euphronios krater. The Author’s Point In “Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? A Culture of Human Rights and the Right to Culture. Acknowledging our differences allows people to build a strong foundation of community within a society. Here is a cautionary tale about the international system we have created. Myself, I subscribe to the "politics is downstream from culture" argument. This is the ideology of the system to which the United States committed itself with the Senate’s ratification in 1972 of the UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. A Social Constructionist Approach to Researching Families. Whose Culture Is It Anyway: A Review and Critique Posted by By Joseph June 30, 2017. "Whose Culture? Chapter 12. 'Building a city depends on how people combine the traditional economic factors of land, labour and capital.' Community Engagement in Small Cities is a major contribution to the growing body of literature on the special character and value of small cities, especially aspects of their unique culture. August 2020; DOI: 10.1002/9781119438519.ch87. The object’s aesthetic value is not fully captured by its value as private property. Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? The people of Michelangelo’s native Caprese? Furthermore, because cultural property has a value for all of us, we should make sure that those to whom it is returned are in a position to act as responsible trustees. Even on a grander scale, a Jewish-inspired theme plays out in this gem business of a movie series, whose titles include “Goldfinger” and “Diamonds Are Forever.” And it was going to prove a goldmine. Here were drawers of extraordinary Bactrian artifacts and Ghandara heads and figurines. Summary Long acknowledged as sites of social construction, family interactions, and what is constructed from those interactions, have become an increasing focus of qualitative research. ... Summary: In this chapter, Appiah offers a cosmopolitan critique of the concept of cultural property/patrimony. Beyond this standard definition, I believe that culture is a conglomeration of the things we adopt from our families, friends, peers, and other members of our community. Comment: This text offers a clear and effective overview of philosophical issues concerning cultural property, and uses a range of cultural and artistic examples. She wants not just to know what their swords look like but to stand close to an actual sword, wielded in actual battles, forged by a particular smith. Kwame Anthony Appiah teaches philosophy at NYU. It is also committed, after all, to the idea of private property. People I know who have visited the National Museum in Kabul recount what the staff members there have told them. Save 50% off the regular rate and 75% off the cover price and receive a free 2021 calendar! Best of The New York Review, plus books, events, and other items of interest. If UNESCO had spent as much effort to make it possible for great art to get into Mali as it has done to stop great art getting out, it would have been serving better the interests that Malians, like all people, have in a cosmopolitan aesthetic experience. But it can’t enforce the law. 2 (Spring 2001), pp. Unesco International Framework For The Protection Of The Cultural Heritage. See the article in its original context from … Please help- i dont understand it. It has been too easy to lose sight of the global constituency. Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? Knowledge of Our Skin. You might also show your respect for the culture it came from by holding on to it because you value it yourself. They are surely among the realest connections we have. 4 (October 1986), pp. Social working within a rural community When we consider culture one initially thinks of one’s ethnic belonging, but culture also relates to historical, social and familial influences resulting in shared values and beliefs by people living within the same physical and often isolated location. New York, London: W. W. Nortion & Company. by Henry Louis Gates Jr? Social working within a rural community When we consider culture one initially thinks of one’s ethnic belonging, but culture also relates to historical, social and familial influences resulting in shared values and beliefs by people living within the same physical and often isolated location. 80, No. So you might think there was a case for giving people an incentive to share it. Whose Culture Is It Anyway? But if Nok civilization came to an end and its people became something else, why should they have a special claim on those objects, buried in the forest and forgotten for so long? Part of the obligation, though, is to make those collections more widely available not just in London but elsewhere, through traveling collections, through publications, and through the World Wide Web. Does Picasso himself—a Spaniard—get to be part of the cultural patrimony of the Republic of the Congo, home of the Vili people, one of whose carvings Matisse showed him at the Paris apartment of the American Gertrude Stein? The right way is to take not a national but a trans-national perspective: to ask what system of international rules about objects of this sort will respect the many legitimate human interests at stake. I’ve gazed in wonder at Michelangelo’s work in the Sistine Chapel and I will grant that Their Holinesses Popes Julius II, Leo X, Clement VIII, and Paul III, who paid him, made a contribution, too. He raises important philosophical questions about cultural continuity over time, and explores how the location of art can best facilitate its value for humanity. The connection through a local identity is as imaginary as the connection through humanity. Suppose that from the beginning, Mali had been encouraged and helped by UNESCO to exercise its trustee-ship of the Djenne-jeno terra cottas by licensing digs and educating people to recognize that objects removed carefully from the earth with accurate records of location are of greater value, even to collectors, than objects without this essential element of provenance. Plainly, special legal problems are posed by objects, like Nok art, where there is, as lawyers might say, no continuity of title. Even with increased awareness of diversity throughout our … It’s a contribution to the cultural heritage of the world. And if it’s Nigeria’s, it’s not yours. His four books include “Being Mortal” and “The Checklist Manifesto.” They knew that centuries-old illuminated manuscripts kept in a library north of Kabul had been burned by Taliban zealots. But in a multiethnic city with different social classes, just whose culture is shapi When looking at cities, it is no longer enough to talk about the service economy or the manufacturing economy. Upon reviewing an organizational strategy from an HR client recently, I came across an interesting finding. Here “culture” is whatever people make and invest with significance through their creative work. Our great museums, once seen as redoubts of cultural appreciation, are now suspected strongrooms of plunder and pillage. Whose Culture Is It, Anyway? It is for them the work of an instant to decide to share a table, and, fueled Whose City?’ in The Cultures of Cities. His latest book is The Lies That Bind: Rethinking Identity. These days, museum curators have grown uneasily self-conscious about the origins of such cultural treasures, especially those that are archaeological in nature or that come from the global south. Chapter 13. The Aban had been completed in 1822. ↩, See www.theartnewspaper.com/news /article.asp?idart=7995; Carla Power, “Saving the Antiquities,” Newsweek, May 14, 2001, p. 54. Thursday, October 13, 2016. The threat comes from the idea that even endangered art—endangered by a state whose government threatens it precisely because they don’t think it is a proper part of their own heritage—nevertheless properly belongs in the state whose cultural patrimony it is. (May 2020), I owe a great deal to the cogent (and cosmopolitan!) Switzerland, as a signatory of UNESCO treaties, simply required UNESCO approval to receive the shipment. Disentangling Culture and Eating by Andrea January 18, 2015 Often, in writing about eating disorders, you will come across references to how some consider these disorders to be “culture bound.”…; Whose Culture is it Anyway? They also… More cultural patrimony for Nigeria, right? It is for them the work of an instant to decide to share a table, and, fueled Whose Responsibility is Culture Anyway? An Italian law (passed, by the way, under Mussolini) permits its government to deny export to any artwork currently owned by an Italian, even if it’s a Jasper Johns painting of the American flag. The connection people feel to cultural objects that are symbolically theirs, because they were produced from within a world of meaning created by their ancestors—the connection to art through identity—is powerful. A blog about conservatives, culture, and conservative culture. By emphasizing the common features of our humanity and the tenuousness of certain cultural identity claims, he puts pressure on conceptions of cultural property that would exclude others, particularly those that have a nationalist character. Modern thefts have not, of course, been limited to the pillaging of archaeological sites. The symbolic Economy A large number of public spaces owe their form and shape to the entwining of cultural symbols. A great deal of early modern European art was court art or was church art. A growing culture-keeping industry is happy to part adoptive parents from their money; one mom calls it “white women playing Chinese.” When cultural identity is essentialized and sold in this way, Jacobson suggests, it allows white parents to focus on “culture” rather than a child’s race. It offers a concise summary of the legal scholar John Merryman's classic article in support of internationalism about cultural property (not included in this curriculum). Acknowledging our differences allows people to build a strong foundation of community within a society. The color of our skin does not define who we are; however, it does allow us to acknowledge the diversity of our society. So far cultural property is just like any other property. (There are at least forty more objects at that museum that the Italians are after.) Blackwell. Each of us has an interest in being able, should we choose, to live with art—an interest that is not limited to the art of our own “people.” And if an object acquires a wider significance, as part, say, of the oeuvre of a major artist, then other people will have a more substantial interest in being able to experience it. But whose culture is it anyway, and how can we possibly decide definitively who owns this cultural “intellectual property” that is by definition shared amongst many? And it is, indeed, a perfectly reasonable property rule that where something of value is dug up and nobody can establish an existing claim on it, the government gets to decide what to do with it. The terra cottas were sold to collectors in Europe and North America who rightly admired them. He then raises a question: who owns these cultural patrimony and properties? Two diners, seated separately, vaguely recognize each other as being associated with AAPL. The result is that many fine Djenne-jeno terra cottas were dug up anyway in the 1980s, after the discoveries of the archaeologists Roderick and Susan McIntosh and their team were published. “Belong” here is a metaphor, of course: I just mean that the Nok sculptures are of potential value to all human beings. Since the first film, Dr. No, which came out in 1962 to the present, the series has proved itself time and again. But which people exactly made that contribution? How does this relate to you and your organization? My people—human beings—made the Great Wall of China, the Sistine Chapel, the Chrysler Building: these things were made by creatures like me, through the exercise of skill and imagination. Part of the debate about culture revolves around issues of perspective and ownership. Time passes, and he comes to be seen as one of Nigeria’s most important modern artists. But we should remind ourselves of other connections. Your email address will not be published. It seems to me reasonable that the decision about those objects should be made by the government in whose soil they are found. Baden-Powell clearly believed that the inventorying and removal of these treasures under the orders of a British officer was a legitimate transfer of property. It isn’t peoples who experience and value art; it’s men and women. Whose Culture Is It Anyway? How does this relate to you and your organization? Has anyone read, " Whose Culture is it Anyways ? In the journal "Whose Culture Is It, Anyway," author Henry Louis Gate Jr. outline the connection between race/ethnicity and secondary education or higher learning institutions.However, that is that topic is more geared towards the opening part of the purpose of his journal entry. If not, not. With these were many specimens of Moorish and Ashantee handicraft.”, We shouldn’t become overly sentimental about these matters. A Social Constructionist Approach to Researching Families. Chapter 13. Search for more papers by this author. Required fields are marked *, Unless otherwise stated, all elements of the Diversity Reading List licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Web Design by TELdesign Limited • Theme: Avant by Kaira. Literary Canons and Politics of Culture," New York Times Book Review , 26 February 1989, 1. Through their creative work will therefore naturally try to preserve such objects for Nigerians the community, we avoid! 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